SUNDRIES: An eighteenth century newsletter

N° 47 - September 9, 2006

GOOGLE PRINT: Goodies within reach inter text IMAGE COLLECTIONS: Book bindings from Paris inter text FILM: Amazing Grace inter text MONARCHY: A royal rooster crows

law scales THE OLD REGIME POLICE BLOTTER: Pimps, madams & parents

inter cooking 18th CENTURY RECIPE: French fried potatoes

fleur de lysFOR READERS OF FRENCHfleur de lys
Magasin Pittoresque: No 50 - 1882


GOOGLE PRINT: Goodies within reach

Those who only read English and have looked with envy on the long lists of documents available on Gallica can now share with Francophone users the experience of spending long hours searching out and downloading entire documents - in English! (Among other languages.)

The wrinkles in Google Print's downloads are still some ways from being worked out. Depending on which version of Acrobat, which computer and which connection I've used, I've had various minor problems, including warnings of problems reading documents (which nonetheless opened) and some or most of the pages being blank. Also, a number of documents are not set up to download, and when several volumes exist, not only can it be hard to find all of them, sometimes only one or two are ready for download.

Growing pains...

On the other hand, Google Print has some advantages over Gallica:

  • The documents download significantly faster
  • Text search works across the entire corpus, not just selected documents
  • Searches can be limited by date range

Note that with some browsers the download will simply start, without allowing you to choose where to put the file - in this case, look on your desktop for the file.

My own interest remains focused on the French side of things, and so hopefully someone with more knowledge of English matters will prowl around a bit and highlight some of what is available and of most interest to scholars of that isle. For now, here are a few items I've found, in both English and French:

IMAGE COLLECTIONS: Book bindings from Paris

A poster alerted the generally quiet French list to this collection: Blind-tooled bookbindings, 12th-18th centuries. There isn't much from our period, but that probably won't matter to fans of this kind of imagery.

I'd guess the same site has other collections, but I couldn't find a master link to them all.

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FILM: Amazing Grace

This just in from Indiewire:

""Grace," "Queen" Coming To Heartland
The closing film of this year's Toronto International Film Festival, Michael Apted's "Amazing Grace," will open next month's Heartland Film Festival in Indianapolis, Indiana. "Grace" examines the life of William Wilberforce, a British Parliamentarian who led abolitionists in ending the slave trade of late 18th century England. It co-stars Iaon Gruffudd, Rufus Sewell, and Albert Finney.
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MONARCHY: A royal rooster crows

The Count of Provence, later Louis XVIII, was known as "Monsieur" (being the king's eldest brother). This item was prompted by his wife's pregnancy, and gives some idea of why he was somewhat more fun than his (devout and somewhat prudish) brother:

October 15, 1781. The news of the pregnancy of Madame has held up; a court anecdote on this subject is cited. It is said that the queen, when these rumors were first heard, having asked her brother-in-law with interest, if one could flatter oneself that there was any basis for them: a great deal, Madame, answered Monsieur gaily; not a day goes by that that could not be true; Ah! replied H. M. laughing, since you answer so well, I will ask you no more questions.
Bachaumont, Memoires Secrets (T18, 87)
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THE OLD REGIME POLICE BLOTTER: Pimps, madams & parents

Jousse devotes a separate section to Maquerellage - in a word, pimping, or pampering (Traité de la Justice Criminelle, III (810-814)). Even today, maquereau, or mackeral, is a standard word for a pimp; the feminine form, maquerelle, ONLY refers to a madame (that is, you cannot go to the fish market and buy a maquerelle.)

The main punishments have already been discussed at the start of this series, but Jousse raises some surprising points. A servant who prostituted his or her mistress, for instance, was punished more severely (the point is made more than once, suggesting that this was not uncommon). Being a minor (that is, under twenty-five), was no excuse, but could be a mitigating factor. Several situations, such as a husband prostituting his wife, theoretically merited the death penalty, but mitigating circumstances applied (and a capital sentence seems to have been rarely, if ever, applied.)

Those (like inn-keepers) who favored this traffic were to be punished in the same way as the panderers themselves.

One term used for madams was moderately euphemistic and could also refer to midwives (especially those who performed abortions): matrons. Mercier has a very long passage on such 'matrons': "Common term which has been substituted for one less decent." In it, he outlines a kind of phylogeny of both madams and prostitutes, and shows the madams almost as producers, "packaging" each girl for an assortment of tastes:

The dress seller becomes a freshly arrived little village woman; the linen worker is a shy girl just in from the provinces, who has fled the outrageous cruelty of a willful step-mother. Speech matches dress. Since our pleasures depend largely on the imagination, the deceived men are no less satisfied.

He notes that unspoken rules applied:

There is a tacit police rule which forbids all these matrons from receiving any virgin girls; they must be deflowered before entering into the place frequented; and if a girl was not, the inspector would be notified at once. One might laugh at this last phrase. One would be wrong; I write it seriously. They wanted to establish a certain order in the very heart of disorder, ward off too great abuses, protect innocence and weakness, and prevent too bold libertinage,... And so no father can complain; never has his daughter's misbehavior started in the suspect place...

It seems that by the time he wrote, the more public punishment of madams had ended:

The populace greatly misses the promenade on the ass; a pleasure sometimes provided to it by a solemn judgement of parlement. It regarded the exemplary punishment of these matrons who, as a grave jurist naively says, make a trade of seducing young women from decent families. But the example normally fell on some unhappy woman who had lent her help to impoverished girls. No attention was paid to those who, exercising the profession on a large scale, had served the fantasies of princes, prelates, foreigners, and even of some philosophers. Here is an idea of this promenade, as I have seen it. At the head marched a drummer, then came a sergeant armed with a pike; a valet led an ass by the bridle; on the long-eared animal mounted backwards was a matron, a bawd or a seductress, the face turned towards the beast's tail; an artistically arranged straw crown decorated her head. On her back and on her chest hung a sign in large letters, with these words: public madam. Imagine all the rabble in tumult and wild with joy, throwing its dirty caps in the air, and blocking the way with jeers and obscene cries. This indecent spectacle has not been renewed for several years, serving only to stir lewd ideas, and to free the crowd to offer dirty and crude words. The sign read, commented and interpreted, became a scandal to chaste ears and for young innocent girls. Besides what effect does this promenade have on this vile creature? She does not feel the shame any more than the ass which carries her. This miserable person dared to smile at the universal mockery; and judging at a glance the crossroads opening at her passage, she had the effrontery to say: there, at these windows, on the second floor, are misses who act like prudes, and who do not dare show themselves; because they could not look at me without recognizing me. If several performances of this masquerade have not been given, it is not that lead actresses have become rare...

Probably the most famous case involving a madam was that of Mme. Gourdon which began in 1769 and was ajudged in 1776. This case, which involved several accusers and elements, and which led to at least one colorful account of the accused's (luxurious) facilities, is too long to include for now. One of the accusations against her was, in fact, that she corrupted girls who were virgins when she met them.

One might expect that procurers would be professionals (in their way) of various sorts. But anyone who has seen "Born Into Brothels" may not be too surprised that many of those prostituting others were parents, husbands, brothers or other relations, and many judicial accounts describe such cases.


Jousse provides a long list of sentences handed down against pimps and madams. These have a certain monotony, and yet vary enough to leave one wondering what prompted the nuances between each sentences.

By Sentence of the Chatelet [tribunal] of Paris of March 13 1669, confirmed by Judgement [on appeal?], a public madam was condemned to be whipped, having on her head a straw hat, & taken to the Hospital, to be locked up there for the rest of her days.

Another judgement of March 3, 1716, handed down against Pierre-Alexandre Boulier-de-Monrival, & Elisabeth Boucher, his wife, who carried on a public trade of pandering. This Sentence condemned them to the pillory with a straw hat & signs, & and to be beated and whipped, and banished for nine years; Renée Dupré, Thérese *** & Marguerite ***, prostitutes, to be locked up in the Hospital. [The discretion about the family names of two of the three women is not explained.]


Another of August 3, 1731, on appeal of the Lieutenant of Police of Angers, which condemns two individuals to the pillory for two hours in the market of Angers, their heads covered with a straw hat, & having each one a sign in front and behind bearing these words, Public pimp; to then be whipped & branded, & banished for nine years.

Another Judgement of September 23 1734, handed down on appeal of a Sentence by a Judge of Montmartre, which condemns Pierre-Guillaume, called Lamotte, to be put in the pillory, wearing a straw hat, & to be banished for nine years.

Another of January 10, 1749, on appeal of a Sentence handed down by the Lieutenant of Police of Paris, which condemns Louise Tisserant to be whipped, having on her head a straw hat with a sign before & behind bearing these words, public Madam, & then to be branded with a fleur-de-lys, & banished for three years from the City & Viscounty of Paris: & regarding Marie Multon, given her debauchery, that she be locked up for three months in the Hospital General.

Denisart offers three examples including two also mentioned by Jousse (omitted above):

May 16, 1729, [a Decision] declared Francoise Fournier convinced of public pandaring, for which she was condemned to be whipped, marched around on an ass, &x. branded with a hot iron, in the form of a fleur-de-lys, & to an exile of five years.

Another like on July 7, 1750, against Jeanne Moyon, widow le Sur, & another of January 7, 1756, by which Therese le Grand was declared convicted of haveing run a public trade of debauchery & of public prostitution in her house; for which, the Court has condemned her to be taken through the usual places, even rue St. Martin..., mounted on an ass, having the face turned towards the tail, her head covered with a straw hat, & and having signs before & behind, carrying these words: Public Madam... to be beaten & whipped with sticks... & branded with a hot iron.... this done... banished for five years, &c.
Denisart (II, 158-159)


This not only shows how much of a family business prostitution often was, but includes a rare mention of male prostitution (without specifying the gender of the clients): "He did not limit himself to prostituting girls". A good part of this account describes various swindles, which will be recounted under the appropriate heading.

Tausin Father and Son [entered the Bastille 1701, released 1703]


Savery, police officer, to M. D'Argenson

Here is a memoir which you have done me the honor of sending me. I have looked into the conduct of the people named in it, everybody I asked about them, assured me that Tausin and his son, these are two of the biggest poisons in Paris, only living from hustles and swindles.

..Tausin goes every evening to the garden of the Palais Royal, from seven o'clock until eleven, where he has meetings, and then he approaches people he knows and whom he thinks suited to the pleasure of the women and boys he furnishes them. This disgraceful trade which he has conducted for as many years as he has been in Paris, wandering like a vagabond, hs led him to corrupt young people of the one and the other sex, and atrracting them by this means to his house and to other spots, and involves them in the greatest of all crimes.

Savery then describes a variety of crooked schemes (besides prostitution) in which Tausin involves these young people, before continuing:

His son, who has himself called Sainte-Maure, and whom he uses to support his crooked schemes, also leads a scandalous debauched life, only frequenting bandits, and who, although married, being at his father's house with his wife, nonetheless supports girls of ill repute in furnished rooms, whom he provides to young men, as is seen by the people who ask him for money for the rent of the rooms, and often changing residence, taking here the name of an officer of the King's guard, of Monsieur's guard, of M. de Gesvres' guard, and other such qualities which only serve to disguise his name to meet up with people.."

August 26, 1701, Pontchartrain wrote d'Argenson that the King wanted the men put in the Bastille. Tuesday, August 30, Savery brouaght "Tausin de Sainte-Maure of Bordeaux" to the Bastille and he was put in room 5, the "Calotte" (top) of the Basiniere tower. On Wednesday, September 28, Savery brought the father, who was put in room 3 of the Corner tower. In 1703, however, both were released and ordered to return to Bordeaux. Junca (whose journal is a key Bastille source) had written "they are not worth the expense they cost the King. Ravaisson (Tome 10, 1693-1702, 370-380)


Condras is a familiar type, much like Mack the Knife or Bill Sikes in "Oliver Twist", for whom prostitution and violence are mere attributes of an overall life of crime.

DANGEROUS PIMP [August 1702] - The evening of the day before yesterday, Condras, called Saint-Germain, kicked out of the Dauphin gendarmes for his bad morals and, at present, head crook, abandoned to all sorts of debauchery and the declared protector of several prostitutes who support him, attacked with no cause Jacob, servant of madame the marquise de Longchesne and who takes the title of his squire. They were separated almost immediately, but, four or five hours after, the same Condras had the insolence to return to the house of the lady of Longchesne, to ask for Jacob there, and to write him a letter calling him out. Finally, Jacob being arrived, he forced him to fight, and the soldiers of the regiments of the french Guards, who are on watch in the faubourg de Saint-Honore, being arrived just in time, they rescued the officer of madame de Longchesne from the difficulty in which he was and seized the person of Condras. But, after having kept him at the guard house some time, they let him go.

I doubt that the common justice will make much effort to get a hold of him, but, if you give me the order, I think that it will not hard for me to have him arrested, and if M. the lieutenant criminal cannot do better, once he has him in his prisons, it will be very important for the public safety, and to restrain scoundrels of this sort, if it pleases the King to send this one forty or fifty leagues from partis by that immediate authority to which we owe our tranquility.
d'Argenson (106-108)


I have mentioned before the combination of compassion and indignation which runs through many of d'Argenson's reports, and this one, which is not only unusually long, but was accompanied by supporting documents, is an example of both. Clearly he was determined here to rescue this daughter from a mother whose relentless efforts to re-corrupt her daughter call to mind Fagan's attempts to drag Oliver Twist back into a life of crime.

UNNATURAL MOTHER - September 30, 1702 - Her father was a Spanish gentleman and named Gonzalles; he married her in 1672, to the lord of Meinjat, captain of cavalry.

They only had one daughter and the lord of Meinjat was killed at the battle of Fleurus. The daughter got a pension from the King, in the amount of 300 pounds, which is still paid to her, but the lady of Meinjat got married five years later, to a lawyer names Trudonne, that she made die of sorrow, having lodged a request despite him to annul their marriage, claiming that this poor lawyer was impotent.

The proceedings which followed this request are at the registry of the officiality of Soissons, and it suffices to read them to convict this unworthy widow of a complete lack of shame.

Miss Meinjat has, unfortunately, remained under the guidance of her mother, who sold her at the age of fourteen. This first commerce lasted six years, and became so scandalous, that commissioner Beaudelot had both mother and daughter put in prison.

Pious persons took the daughter in hand and obtained her freedom: but the mother as the most guilty had trouble obtaining it; finally she offered to retire to a convent and she left prison, under the guise of a conversion which was only feigned.

Once the mother was free, she resolved to marry the daughter to a lackey, in hopes of prostituting her more easily, under cover of their marriage. She prepared a contract; but the girl was wise enough to resist finalizing it, and several of her relatives, touched by her bad luck, put her in the convent of Nogent l'Artaud, where, by unexpected luck, she was sought by a gentleman unaware of the disorder of her youth. The mother has put all her efforts since this time towards corrupting her daughter's morals again, and has made the husband aware of what he would have been happy to have never known.

He has nonetheless borne this unhappiness without giving way to useless recriminations, and the mother seeing that her daughter no longer wanted to ply the trade, has tried to dishonor her more and more; she has even written in her name impertinent letters to officers who had seen her at Paris, in former times, and having made her the most shameless propositions, she came to Paris where she does everything to cause a break with her husband, not doubting that, if she lacked this resource, necessity would reduce her to return to her first involvements, of which the principle profit went to the mother and supported her needs.

It seems then that if ever a woman deserved to be shut up in the Hospital, it is this one, and there is not less charity than justice in having her taken there as soon as possible.


The catalogue of accusations against this woman is so overwhelming it would seem questionable did it not come from the rather dour d'Argenson. Even rarer than the mention of male prostitution here is the mention of a woman paying men for sex.

M. d'Argenson to Pontchartrain
November 9, 1707

If ever anybody deserved to be locked up in the Hospital on the King's order, it is certainly the Leclerc, wife of Pingre, of a very decent bourgeois family from the faubourg Saint-Marcel; impiety, blasphemy, prostitution and drunkenness are her least criminal occupations. She has sold her son to sodomites, and her daughter, who is not yet 13 years old, to anyone who asked; she has mixed quicksilver several times into her husband's drink, she has had him beaten and robbed by accomplices in her debauchery; she had the insolence to threaten him herself with murder and poison; ugly, old and infected with the most shameful maladies, she has corrupted by presents or rather by thefts from her husband, several young men of whom some are being cured; the principal among them is called Mazai, son of a grocer; Lafleur, soldier from the guards' regiment; Reuilly, Ranchin and Bidault, besides tavern waiters, chair porters and stable valets who gladly give themselves to her for 30 sols or for a crown. Several other crimes are ascribed to this woman which merit the harshest punishments; nonetheless her husband cannot decide himself to bring her to justice. but people of piety have let him know that, without exposing himself to the vengeance of his wife who is capable of stabbing him if he became her accuser, the King could well have her shut up in the hospital, and I think there is no less charity than justice to grant him this grace.
Ravaissaon, Archives de la Bastille (Tome 11, 386)


This is one of at least two cases where d'Argenson hesitated to exile some one because of an on-going trial.

FALSE MENAGE - May 4, 1708. - Most of the facts contained in the anonymous memoir concerning the lord Grandbois, which you have done me the honor of sending me, are exactly true, above all those which concern the lewd conduct, the prostitution that this man apparently makes of his so-called wife, the scandal which she has long caused, her removal to forty leagues from Paris, and the reputation they have, the one and the other, of only living off their intrigues.

He is from the county of Avignon, he is absolutely without occupation and is known to have no other resource that what he owes to his scheming. He claims to have married Dorigny, formerly sent away for her commerce with the late M. the abbe of Beuvron, but he could bring the necessary certificate to prove it. They seem to quarrel, almost always, but the least chance of profit reconciles them.

Therefore, I would not hesitate to propose their exile to you, were it not for the suit they have against M. d'Inteville, son of madame the princess of Courtenay and of the late president Lebrun, which concerns a not for which the lord Grandbous and the Dorigny demand payment, and which the lord d'Inteville insists is forged. And so, as undesirable as they may be, besides, since forbidden games and the strangest mischief have almost always been their usual entertainments, I do not dare to propose their removal, until this trial, where the bad faith of Grandbois and of the Dorigny seems obvious, has been definitively judged. [To this part, Pontchartrain says, "Order it so. In the meantime, tell them to watch themselves and have the woman come see me." !]

I must not omit that the lord of Viel de Surosne, formerly Monsieur's chamberlain, and driven from Paris for the lewdness of his conduct, was part of this criminal group, because I believe this circumstance will recall to you what I had the honor to write you two years ago.
[Pontchartrain responds that he did not remember this, and neither did the king.]


This is part of a larger series of items in d'Argenson's reports. Dillon is an Irish name of some note in the France of our era, where there was a Franco-Irish family of that name with several prominent members. It appears here to be the subject's husband's name. The name "Magdelonnettes" has a clear suggestion of Mary Magdelene.

MADEMOISELLE DE BOUSSANS. (continued) - January 6, 1708. I have learned that the lady Dillon, who was in the Magdelonnettes by order of the King, and whose mother and father have begged you insistently to restore her to their guidance, to transfer her to the convent of Baune, left several days ago, by agency of the lord of Blaignac, who had married her sister, and who is accused, with apparent cause, of prostituting her to the first comer: it is even said that lacking his wife (whom he lost a few months ago), he plans to profit from his sister-in-law, whom he had come back to Paris under pretext of entering an imaginary convent where a devout person, named madame Poullet, of whom he was careful to imagine a few letters, was to pay her pension by charity; but, instead of entering this supposed convent, she is seen everyday riding in a carriage with the lord of Blaignac, her brother-in-law, who sold her, it is said, to Cyntio (the lover of his wife), while awaiting some better adventure. It is added that after she has spent the summer in Paris, she plans to go to England to find her husband who has renounced the catholic religion to embrace that of the government, in which she will not have much trouble imitating him, since the disorder of her morals makes all religions almost equal to her.
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From CHEZ JIM Books:
and a history of the CROISSANT:

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18th CENTURY RECIPE: French fried potatoes

Bonnefons' Les Delices de la Campagne ["Country Delights"], from 1655, includes this brief but surprising recipe:

Jerusalem artichokes, potatoes

Parboil them, peel them, & make them a German style sauce, as above [butter, with salt, nutmeg and vinegar], they have a true taste of artichoke heart, but nonetheless a little softer, cut into slices, fry them with parsley, & with a [clear] paste [of flour, egg yolks and vinegar salted to taste] as for the Scorsonnerre [a type of salsify].
(102-103105, 111-112)

Why is this surprising?

Here is the Larousse Gastronomique on the potato:

In France, the potato was still considered suspect in 1771; it was said to be unfit for human consumption and dangerous... It was Parmentier who rehabilitated it

Numerous other sources could be quoted to the same effect: Parmentier, in the late eighteenth century, got the French to eat potatoes, which until then had barely been considered food.

In fairness, this is, in the main, true. Despite Bonnefons' blithe mention above, no major French cookbook so much as mentions potatoes through the entire 18th century. In 1806, we finally find not only potatoes, but, again, fried potatoes:

Potatoes sauteed in butter

Take off the peel of raw potatoes; pare them to an equal size; cut them in round slices the size of a small crown [a coin], the thickness of a line and a half [that is, very thin]; put a good lump of butter in a pot; put it on a hot flame; add in the potatoes; keep sauteing them until they are light brown; then drain them in a strainer; sprinkle them with fine salt, and arrange them on a dish with no other seasoning.
Viard, le Cuisinier Imperial (386-387)

Are these French fries? Well, they were French, and, essentially, fried. But neither the characteristic long thin shape nor the deep-frying method that now define that delicacy are described. Still, clearly the idea was well on its way. Add to that the fact that French cooks had long cut vegetables into long thin slices - Julienne-style - and probably something that at least looked like a French fry had been made in France by the start of the century.

This recipe from 1814 adds one major element: oil (which does not seem to have been used for frying at all in the 18th century, though it had been earlier):

Potatoes Lyonnaise

Take a dozen raw potatoes; wash them, so that no dirt remains; pare them to equal size, as you would pare a carrot; cut them into liards [small coins]. the thickness of a one-franc piece; flour-them; have oil heated in a pan; put in your potatoes; be careful they do not stick together; fry them to a nice color, so that they are crunchy; pour them in a strainer; drain them, salt them with a little fine salt, and serve.
Beauvilliers, L'Art du Cuisinier (II, 212)

Not all recipes for Lyonnaise potatoes are this close to standard French fries, but, except for the shape, this brings us in nicely to sliced potatoes fried golden in hot oil - less than fifty years after potatoes began to be widely accepted in France.

By 1833, they were an established public snack food, as evidenced by this list of a French fry vendor's expenses in the first issue of the Magasin Pittoresque, 1833 (19-20):
A furnace 4 francs
A bucket 2 f 50 centimes
A pail 1 f
Two trestles and a board 5 f
A sawhorse 1 f
Two baskets 1 f 50 c
Plate and dishes 1 f 50 c
A frying pan 1 f 50 c
A basket (to carry on the back) 5 f
A shovel and tongs 1 f
A bellows 1 f
Two pots of sandstone 1 f
First provisions [sausages and potatoes] 5 f

None of this touches on a more momentous and more controversial question: were French fries invented in France? Absent some hard contemporary evidence, I am not inclined to even try answering a question which seems tailor-made for attracting the kind of mini-myths which surround the origins of popular foods. Even the Larousse Gastronomique - hardly shy about repeating myth and speculation - steers clear of this issue. For anyone who would like a survey of the various claims, the Wikipedia offers a tour of the question.

This article, by the way, mentions a recipe for fried potatoes from 1755 in Menon's Les soupers de la cour. I have yet to see this recipe, but if accurately cited, it would be the earliest mention in the 1700's I know, not only of fried potatoes, but of potatoes at all, in a French cookbook.

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fleur de lysFOR READERS OF FRENCHfleur de lys

Magasin Pittoresque: No 50 - 1882

REMINDER: The Magasin Pittoresque was a nineteenth century French magazine. Issues can be found on Gallica. Also, most articles are accompanied by at least one image, and so some may interest even those who do not read French.

And so we reach number 50...

Here is what the journal's creator wrote at the end of this volume:

I founded this review, a half-century ago, at the start of 1833, with the help of young friends, inspired like me by the desire to be useful. Among the thousands of pages written on so many diverse subjects by my collaborators and by me during these fifty years, there is none that I have not read with care before publishing it, none (my conscience assures me) that the most scrupulous decency may blame.
Faithful to the promises of our start, I have collected, day by day, in every place, in Museums, in Libraries, in travel, in my experience and my convictions, all that seemed to me of a nature to awaken healthy curiosity for learning and to maintain good sentiments.
I do not think to have done any harm, and the hope of having done some good encourages me to continue in a second series, as long as it will be possible, this work which I love and which has been the principal one of my life.

Edouard Charton

Ladies and gentleman, a big hand, if you will, for Monsieur Charton... I am not alone, I know, in my gratitude for his sustained efforts.

The Magasin Pittoresque continued to number 78 (1908), and, over time, so will we (probably). But anyone who's followed this rather haphazard series from the first knows it started 'In Media Res' (I was actually trying to find references to croissant when I started), and so, beginning next week, I will correct that curious start by returning to... the FIRST Magasin Pittoresque. That's right - No 1.

This shouldn't matter to too many readers. But anyone who's been following the Little History of Trades might be a tad frustrated; there are still many trades to go. I will point out to anyone so disappointed that the series - though it's not clear in translation - is in alphabetical order, and so if YOUR favorite trade has not yet appeared, you can look ahead in the series, or even search on Gallica for the trade in question.

Four famous writers (at the time at least), four friends, four members of the Academy - Dolphins, fish and a candlewick - "Top of the evening - and my sedan chair - to you" - An inventor made his machine talk, but destroyed it out of rage at not being paid - Luxurious dolls reappeared at the end of the Middle Ages - Jute bags hanging on the walls, each one a legal case - An image of Peace on an instrument of war - At the end of the first Empire, fashion became too complicated to follow - "Everything is useful in hemp" & - The "boots", used for interrogation in France, were used for execution in Scotland - Before carriages and sedan chairs, the horse's rump looked pretty comfortable - The richer drapers got, the more demands they made - a 'catechism' for Muslims who had forgotten Arabic - He invented a match, but someone else got rich... - For shame, we charge extra - Bouchardon has a party, in his student's quarters - Why put a number on a house when you can sculpt a PICTURE? - An old question: what percentage of your income goes to rent? - Two mechanical ducks, pecking at corn - a writer was once a simple tradesman - Bowls were once in big demand - But not so much as spurs - grocers once sold more candles than food - Imagine being a master pin-maker? - A Moreau owned by a Goncourt - You can trace some British history on the country's china - The Germans, not the Romans, gave us the duel - Among royal playthings, a Republican government - Quietism landed Mme Guyon in the Bastille - The Swedes brought us five cents - Tell time with the Passions of Christ - "M. Pasteur has shown, as agents of each fermentation, so many small organisms, or microbes, to use Sebillot's well-chosen term" - How about a periodical on the latest royal etiquette? - A self-portrait by... Thackeray? - Bentham, Champollion and Goethe died in the same year - Arts and Metiers is more than a metro stop - Like the sun, "He sees and is seen to act on his own" - Casting statues took second place to casting cannon - Blacksmiths were once 'fevres' (like 'orfevres' - goldsmiths) - A cook's arms: roses and pots - "Anglomania ruled at this time" (Year 8) - Cabs waited at the sign of St.-Fiacre - Florian took a page, or at least a phrase, from Moliere - Perfume your gloves? - Haroun-El_Rashid gave Charlemagne a clock - Imagine Rembrandt as a simple... imager - "We know that it is not by good taste that many of the celebrated English painter [Hogarth]'s shine." - Longfellow: "It is with a feeling of pure joy that I go back to that short period of my life which was spent beneath the peaceful shadows of Auteuil" [from the French] - Unlike Joan of Arc, she defended her people against... other French - Did an Italian silversmith discover engraving? - Bookstores officially began in the 13th century (will they end in the 21st?) - "Hey, this lemonade is RED!!! And made out of grapes..." - "You will know the mason by the base of the wall" - Jews could be doctors, Protestants not - Saint-Louis loved minstrels, unlike many other people - "To me, Auvergne, the enemy is here!" (and cutting my throat) - Before the 18th century, buttons were mainly decoration - Joan "never went to the fields to watch sheep or other beasts" - "Don't rent me the room - sell me your house" - Carpenters and cabinet-makers once lived by the rue de Clery and the rue de la Lune - Already in the 13th century, women could work as mercers - Nothing like the smell of goose, roasting on a stand - Or how about a little lark tart? - Do you really need a fur-lined dress? - A master chef helped preserve the river - Once making a saddle was like making a weapon - Locksmiths weren't allowed to make dies for counterfeit coins (which means they must have done it)

16 - 18th century candleholder
21 - Hogarth/Yeames image of two people chatting from their sedan chairs
43 - talking machines
44 - A 17th c. consultation
52 - history of fashion - end of series
76 - riding pillion (on the rump)
81 - Little dictionary of trades: drapers
99 - the invention of phosphorous matches
112 - French art students' masquerades in Rome
113 - an old sign in Dieppe
138 - Little dictionary of trades: writer
140 - Little dictionary of trades: bowlmaker; spurrier
141 - Little dictionary of trades: grocer
143 - Little dictionary of trades: pin-maker
156 - English pottery and porcelain
158 - history of the duel
161 - the hotel of Menus-Plaisirs; the Assemblee Nationale of 1789
164 - allegorical engraving by Sebastien Leclerc
175 - the discovery of nickel
185 - clock with music and characters
197 - a drink for the king (and accompanying etiquette)
225 - Arts and Metiers, founded 1797
232 - Colbert's monogram
233 - Little dictionary of trades: foundries
234 - Little dictionary of trades: blacksmiths
237 - Little dictionary of trades: clothesellers
238 - Little dictionary of trades: cheesesellers
248 - A lady of year 8
264 - fiacres (hired coaches)
267 - Little dictionary of trades: glovers-perfumers
268 - Little dictionary of trades: clockmakers
270 - Little dictionary of trades: imagers
305 - Little dictionary of trades: goldsmiths, jewelers, etc
307 - Little dictionary of trades: booksellers
309 - Little dictionary of trades: lemonade-vendors (drinks sellers)
310 - Little dictionary of trades: masons, plasterers
311 - Little dictionary of trades: doctors
312 - Little dictionary of trades: minstrels
318 - the use of buttons
324 - Alencon lace
337 - Little dictionary of trades: carpenters
339 - Little dictionary of trades: mercers
341 - Little dictionary of trades: "goosers"-roasters
342 - Little dictionary of trades: pastry chefs
343 - Little dictionary of trades: furriers; fish-sellers
370 - Little dictionary of trades: saddlers
371 - Little dictionary of trades: locksmiths; tailors
373 - Little dictionary of trades: weavers; glaziers
395 - white slaves in Sicily

9 - a group of friends (Andrieux, Thomas, Durcis and Collin d'Harleville)
76 - Scottish heretic Maccail
104 - Dr. Shebbeare in the pillory
121 - Vaucanson, artful mechanic
153 - Moreau le Jeune's sleeping little girl
214 - 1832: the year Goethe died
267 - Florian's comment at Sceaux
274 - A word of Lichtenberg on Hogarth
318 - Sergeant Dubois, unknown herov 331 - Anecdotes about Turner
380 - General Marceau

OT, but of interest
43 - early dolls
48 - An Italian powder holder 16th c
61 - hemp
96 - the Sonna Breviary (for Muslims)
113 - rents in Paris
118 - African Muslim proverbs ("He who is not an ornithologist puts every bird on the grill.")
194 - Pasteur
212 - Thackerayana (sketches from Thackeray)
248 - the arms of Taillevent
281 - Longfellow's stay in Auteuil
289 - Margot Delaye, defender of Montelimar (1570)
326 - Joan of Arc was not a shepherdess
391 - Charles Darwin/p>

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End quote

"How I love to feel small, in surrounding myself with the idea of all these great men, & in savoring the pleasure of admiring them!"

Mercier, Tableau de Paris, Chapter 363
(Lest anyone be misled by a convenional phrase, his list of said great 'men' includes Catherine the Great and Elizabeth I.)

FROM CHEZ JIM BOOKS Three works on eighteenth century subjects:

For some sample 18th century vegetarian recipes, click here.

copyright 2006 Jim Chevallier.
When using brief extracts from this site, please credit properly and provide a link back to this site.
(NOTE: Most translations, except where otherwise noted, are by Jim Chevallier and are copyrighted as such.)
Please do not reproduce extended pieces (recipes, translated pieces, etc.) without prior permission.


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